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  • Australia.The Land of Blue Mountains

  • New Zealand

  • Canada

  • Other English-speaking Countries

  • Australia. The Land of Blue Mountains

    The Great Barrier Reef on the coast of Queensland is a garden under the sea. There are 1,400 different kinds of fish, and more than 300 kinds of coral. Tropical fruit and flowers grow on the beautiful islands. It’s not surprising that more holiday-makers come to Queensland every year.

    Tasmania, the island south of Australia, is small. It is the same size as England. It is also very different from the other states. There are no deserts in Tasmania. It often rains, both in winter and summer. Only a half of million people live in Tasmania, and a large part of the island is still covered with wild, beautiful wild forests. These forests are full of wonder­ful flowers and interesting animals.

    In the Northern Territory you will find the red heart of Australia. And it really is red, with red rocks, red sand, and red skies in the evening. Every year, thousands of tourists visit Ayers Rock and a strange group of huge red stones called «the Olgas*. But these«places are also holy to the Aboriginals. They believe that the land itself has life.

    Sydney is the best known place in New South Wales. In fact, it’s the best known place in Australia. But New South Wales has more than cities. There are, for example, the Blue Mountains. They are covered with forests of blue coloured eucalyptus trees. The air above the forest contains millions of

    microscopic drops of eucalyptus oil. When the sun shines, the air of the Blue Mountais is a real, beautiful blue.

    Less then a hundred years ago, there was nothing except sheep in Canberra. But then Australians decided to build a capital city. The Work began in 1913. Now, Canberra is an international city, full of diplomats and government offices. It’s a beautiful place, with parks, lakes, big open streets and fine buildings.

    Australia is sometimes called «the lucky country». One reason is the wonderful riches under the earth: gold, silver, iron, coal and many precious metals. The Bass Strait, of the coast of Victoria, has been one of the country’s biggest oil fields for many years.

    South Australia is the dryest of all the states, but it does have Murrey River. The river brings greenness and life to the south-east corner. In the early of Australian history, the Mur­rey River was South Australia’s main road. Before real roads and railways came, the river carried people and goods from the east up into the country. Some towns on the Murray still keep the old river boats, and visitors can ride on them.

    There are two kinds of gold in Western Australia. First, there’s real kind — the kind that comes out of the ground. Gold was found in Kalgoorlie in 1893, and the «Golden Mile» was for a time the most expensive piece of land in the world. Kalgoorlie still exports some gold, but the new gold of West­ern Australia is wheat. Big farms grow millions of tons of wheat every year, and wheat has become Australia’s second biggest export.
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    New Zealand

    New Zealand is an island country in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. It lies about 1 600 km southeast of Australia and about 10 500 km southwest of California. New Zealand be­longs to a large island group called Polynesia. The country is situated on two main islands — the North Island and the South Island — and several dozen smaller islands. Most of the smaller islands are hundreds of kilometers from the main ones.

    Wellington is the capital of New Zealand and Auckland is the largest city. English is the official language of New Zealand and is spoken throughout the country. Many native people speak their own language, Maori, in addition to English.

    The country once belonged to the British empire. Today it is in independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations, an issociation of Britain and a number of its former colonies.

    New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. The British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is the monarch of New Zealand. She appoints a governor general to represent her, but the governor general has little power. The legislation, prime minister, and Cabinet run the national go­vernment.

    Britain gave New Zealand a constitution in 1852, when it was a British colony. But through the years the New Zealand legislature has changed almost all its provisions. Today, the nation has no written constitution.

    The first people who settled in New Zealand were a brown-skinned people called Maoris. They came from Polynesian islands located northeast of New Zealand. The country was discovered by Europeans in 1642, but they did not start to settle in the islands until the late 1700’s. Today, most New Zealanders are descendants of the early European settlers. Maoris make up about 12% of the country’s population.

    New Zealand has one of the highest standard of living in the world. For many years, the economy of the country de­pended largely on agriculture. Today agriculture, manu- fac­toring, and service industries are all important to the econo­my. New Zealands economy depends on trade with many coun­tries — Australia, Britain, Japan and the United States.
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    Canada

    Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the United States, but has only about a tenth as many people. About 28 million people live in Canada. About 80% of the population live with­in 320 km of the southern border. Much of the rest of Cana­da is uninhabited or thinly populated because of severe natu­ral conditions.

    Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories;. Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Con­stitution Act of 1982 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. This symbolizes the country’s strong* ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain completely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain governed Canada’s foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full indepen­dence.

    Canada’s people are varied. About 57% of all Canadians have some English ancestry and about 32% have some French ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of

    the country. French Canadians, most of whom live in the prov­inces of Quebec, have kept the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people. Native people — American Indians and Eski­mos — make up about 2% of the country’s population. 77% of Canada’s people live in cities or towns. Toronto and Mon­treal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of the country.

    Today, maintaining a sense of community is one of the major problems in Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canadians in western and eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government does not pay enough attention to their problems. 80% of Quebec’s population are French Canadians. Many of them believe that their province should recieve a special recognition in the Canadian constitution.
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    Other English-speaking Countries

    I’d like to tell you about another countries, where English is the official language. At first, it’s the USA. After 350 years of development the United States of America still holds the leading position in the western world. The USA is the most powerful and highly developed country in the world. What makes the USA the leader of the western world is its economical, political and military dominiance over other coun­tries.

    Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. About 28 million people live in Canada. Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 1982 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the Uni­ted Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada. Canada’s people are varied. About 57% of all Canadians have some English ancestry. Both English and French are official lan­guages of the country. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people.

    Australia is the only country in the world that is also a continent. It’s the sixth large country and the smallest conti­nent. The country’s official name is Commonwealth of Aus­tralia. The Commonwealth of Australia is a federation of states. Australia has six states and two territories.

    Australia is a constitutional monarchy like Great Britain. The Britain monarch, Queen Elizabeth II is also queen of

    Australia and country’s head of state. But the queen has little power in the Australian government.

    New Zealand is an island country in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. New Zealand belongs to a large island group called Polynesia. The country is situated on two main islands — the North Island and the South Island.

    Wellington is the capital of New Zealand. English is the official language of New Zealand and is spoken throughout the country.

    New Zealand is a constitutional monarchy. The British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, is the monarch of New Zealand. Britain gave New Zealand a consti­tution in 1852.

    New Zealand has one of the highest standard of living in the world. New Zealand’s economy depends on trade with many countries — Australia, Britain and the USA.
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